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Mennonites, Jews and Antisemitism, Part 2

posted by Tim Nafziger on 08/13/07 at 11:41 AM

Writing the second half of my piece on Mennonites and Antisemitism has turned out to be a lot harder than I'd hoped. On Friday night I spent 3 hours staring at the screen trying to put my thoughts together unsuccessfully. The experience brought home to me the complexity of this issue and my inadequacy in tackling it. Nonetheless I want to present a few small reflections on what the history of antisemitism in the Christian church and the Mennonite church means for us today.

First of all, I don't believe, as "PA Mennonite" suggested (in a comment on my first post) that looking at this part of our history is simply an opportunity to feel guilty and wallow in self-derision. On the contrary, looking honestly and openly at our whole history is an opportunity to joyfully repent as Jesus called us and move forward. In this case it is an opportunity to strengthen our relationship with our Jewish brothers and sisters. As a people with some persecution and marginalization in our history, we are well positioned to understand the Jewish story in Christendom of 1700 years of marginalization, exclusion and extermination. But in order to begin that journey we need to recognize our complicity in the that long and ugly part of Christian history and educate ourselves about it.

In looking at the Epp dissertation I summarized in the first half of this piece we can see some clear patterns in the beliefs of the Mennonite writers in Der Bote:

  1. Jews behind Communism in the USSR
  2. Jews as and immoral and corrupting influence in society
  3. Jews as power hungry plotters trying to take over the world

These themes are consistent with the long thread of Christian antisemitism. Today, there are still a few in the Mennonite church making the same claims listed above. However, a more common theme is probably the one mentioned by Everett in a comment on my first post. He said:

I recall a major Mennonite leader coming to our MYF at Neffsville (Pa.) Mennnonite Church to talk about Judaism. He told us point-blank that the Holocaust was God's will because the Jews killed Jesus. This was in 1966!

The idea that Jews as an ethnic or religious group are responsible for the death of Jesus has been at the core of Christian antisemitism through most of history and most recently made the headlines with Mel Gibson's The Passion of The Christ. The "Judaism and Jews" article in the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia On-line does a good job of explaining how Mennonites have refuted this idea over the last 50 years, but perhaps it is worth discussing in our churches more regularly.

What can we personally do about all this? I opened this piece emphasizing that this is not a call to guilt or hand wringing. Instead, I believe it is the opportunity to listen to our Jewish neighbors. What is their experience living in your community? What are the stories that they learned as children about the experience of their people? You might learning these stories through reading Jewish publications, browsing an internet site or reading a book. Or perhaps you'll have a conversation with a Jewish person in your neighborhood or town.

Once we've taken the time to listen and learn, you can begin to challenge patterns of antisemitism in your community when we see them. And perhaps we can begin to build stronger relationships between the broader Mennonite and Jewish communities.

Nafziger_tim_2_thumbnail Tim Nafziger is passionate about gathering people with shared values to work together for change in our communities and our world. One such space is Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) where he works as interim assistant director. Tim lives with his wife Charletta in the Ojai Valley in southern California where they connect with Bartimaeus Cooperative Ministires. Tim has written chapters in Widening the Circle: Experiments in Christian Discipleship; Fear or Freedom?: Why a Warring Church Must Change; and 118 Days: Christian Peacemaker Teams Held Hostage in Iraq. His photo portfolio is at timnafziger.com. You can follow Tim on Twitter at @tim_nafziger

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  • Posted by victor1 at Monday, August 13, 2007 at 03:02 PM

    Tim,

    Tell us the truth. Which member of the Mennonite Mafia threatened you? I hope they just sent you underground and didn't brainwash out the research skills and courage you showed in "Part 1".

    After all, we went from Kampen's brave questioning of what drives the contemporary Mennonite imbalance regarding Israel, to your brave publication of Epp's research (and Epp was no fringe figure but one of the key leaders of Canada's Mennonites). Both you and Kampen explore a call for an apology by Mennonites for Nazi involvement. You say you were "shocked" by the revelation that this history had been hidden from you.

    And then we get to your "Part 2" and the shock and bravery melts into classic Mennonite Milquetoast.

    You conclude by suggesting we "listen and learn" about the experience of Jewish people in our communities. And when we discover Jews are haunted, in part, by the fact that many North American Mennonites applauded while German Mennonites fed Jews into gas chambers would a public apology then be in order? Might Jews point out that it is a betrayal of any apology to now play nice with those, like the Iranians, who long to continue the genocide the Allies rudely interrupted in Germany? Might Jews remind you that Kampen's suggestion of a public apology already came out of deep listening and reflection on how "to build stronger relationships between the broader Mennonite and Jewish communities"? Might Jews point out that your "Part 2" seems to take Kampen's summary of decades of close listening and, oh so sensitively, circular file it (sort of like making it a "web exclusive" and never printing the official German apology in English)?

    Here's a suggestion. Why don't you, and The Mennonite, take Kampen seriously? Based on decades of listening he has placed the suggestion of an official apology on the table. Perhaps the prior coverage of the 1995 German apology has already addressed this concern. It would take far less research than tracking down Epp's dissertation to determine this. Simply look to see how The Mennonite reported on the German apology and if the connection to North American support of the Nazi's was made. Was the coverage consistent with the magnitude of Mennonite complicity in genocide? If not then, rather than setting Kampen's challenge aside, why not devote a portion of a print edition of the Mennonite to this story and explore whether North American apologies have been sufficient. Print some photos of Mennonites in Nazi uniforms (here is one: http://www.mcusa-archives.org/jhorsch/jhorsch2003/Rfigure3.jpg) and make this real for us. Document the questions about MCC's truthfulness in helping Germans leave the scene and the implications for our current dialogues with Iranians and others (questions like - Why do Mennonites persistently call for the end of Israeli occupation while never calling for the end of Syrian occupation of Lebanon?).

    At the end of the day what is needed, if Mennonites are going to be the peacemakers we desire to be, is the kind of balance Kampen exhibits rather than the latent anti-Semitism of the past or the political correctness of the present. We need not ignore Kampen's insights to begin anew a vague process of personal conversations (valuable as those may be).

    Some issues are not complex. Mennonites contributed directly and indirectly to the slaughter of six million Jews. Either adequate apologies have already occurred, and current generations share in awareness of this humbling era, or we do not. If our apologies have been inadequate, and if young people like yourself are "shocked" by this information, then there is a need for speaking truth in the form of repentance and awareness throughout the denomination. The Mennonite is the best vehicle for this purpose.

  • Posted by cousin at Tuesday, August 14, 2007 at 10:00 AM

    "After all, we went from Kampen's brave questioning of what drives the contemporary Mennonite imbalance regarding Israel" Just wondering what the contemporary Mennonite imbalance regarding Israel is. My impression has been that most Mennonites(mainline or conservative)don't have much good to say about modern-day Israel, with the mainline Mennos seem to lean very pro-Palestinian/anti-Israel anything.

  • Posted by timjn at Tuesday, August 14, 2007 at 02:16 PM

    Victor,


    Thanks for your response. I'm disappointed that you find this post to be milquetoast. You're absolutely right that it does not have much to say to someone like John Kampen who has spent decades working in the Jewish community and studying the Talmud. Unfortunately, John Kampen is not typical of Mennonites.


    I was attempting to write to an audience of Mennonites who have not studied Judaism or perhaps even met a Jewish person and who aren't familiar with the patterns of antisemitism I laid out. I think we all have to start somewhere and I am trying to offer some small, practical ways to educate ourselves so we can challenge antisemitism when we see it.


    As I said in the first paragraph of the post it wasn't an easy piece to write and if it fell short of your expectation, I apologize. From your comments I gather you've moved beyond the education stage and are more focused on the challenging. More power to you. This piece is certainly not the last word on this subject for me or for anyone else. The subject of antisemitism, conversations with Muslims and the Israel/Palestine complex felt too complex and daunting to try include in this post. Others who have far more experience and knowledge of the subject have already said a lot more than I can.


  • Posted by Gerhard R at Tuesday, August 14, 2007 at 02:32 PM

    Tim, An interesting article, but only a beginning, as others have already noted. There are several scholarly articles that deal directly with the issue. I myself have a book manuscript under consideration by a major university press at the moment: "Himmler's Pacifists: German Ethnic Policy and the Russian Mennonites, 1939-1945." Here is the table of conents: Preface: Ethnicity and Race 16 p. Introduction: The Mennonite Commonwealth 32 p. 1. Quiring in Litzmannstadt — 1940 23 p. 2. Sonderkommando Russland — 1941 34 p. 3. Rosenberg in Chortitza — 1942 30 p. 4. Sonderkommando Stumpp— 1942 32 p. 5. Chortitza under Occupation — 1941-1943 27 p. 6. Gnadenfeld under SS Runes — 1941-1943 24 p. 7. Himmler in Halbstadt — 1942 26 p. 8. Touring the Fatherland — 1942-1943 16 p. 9. Evacuation on the Trek — 1943 22 p. 10. Flight out of Russia — 1943 23 p. 11. Resettlement in the Warthegau — 1944 36 p. 12. Rescue of the Refugees — 1945 40 p. 13. Mennonites and War Crimes 43 p. Conclusion 12 p. Notes … Bibliography 14 p. I would be happy to send you a sample chapter or the preface for review. Gerhard R

  • Posted by victor1 at Wednesday, August 15, 2007 at 12:31 AM

    Tim,

    Thanks for your response. I agree that addressing some of the complexities may be beyond your current pay grade. However, it's a good education for your future pay grades and we need educated activists who counter the current tendency to apply concerns for "social justice" selectively against Jews or anyone else. Your commendable capacity for brave research and reporting in "Part 1" was the only thing that set me up for disappointment with "Part 2".

    Still, having been shocked by this relatively concealed information, and possessing some kind of privileged relationship with The Mennonite, does seem to offer you further opportunities. Let me propose a "Part 3".

    As I suggested below, it should not be hard to determine if the Gospel Herald or The Mennonite published accounts of the momentous 50th anniversary apology by German Mennonites to the Jews and others. If our goal is for Mennonites, as you suggest, "to educate ourselves", it seems to me that coverage of this apology in the print and online edition of The Mennonite is a baseline necessity for achieving your goal. Knowledge of this history would be a helpful prerequisite for your proposed conversations so that one does not react with shock and anger when their new Jewish friend says, "Oh Mennonites, they helped slaughter much of my family." It wouldn't hurt to be ready for, "Oh Mennonites, aren't they the ones discussing spirituality with oppressive Iranians Holocaust deniers that even Muslim Iranian refugees find dangerous?"

    That assumes, of course, that we have the same goal. Honesty, real repentance and reconciliation, even reparations, and not just superficial conversation.

    So in "Part 3" let's hear about the prior coverage of the 1995 apology and any formal apologies from the many North American Mennonites who were in Germany during World War II. Is your "shock" consistent with a broader attempt to hide this humiliating legacy? With this information we can judge how adequately our denomination has prepared us for just the kind of conversations you propose.

  • Posted by PA Mennonite at Tuesday, August 21, 2007 at 08:37 AM

    I believe my comments may have been slightly misunderstood. I was not looking to debase the authenticity of what was presented, rather argue whether it is truly needed. I echo what 'cousin' posted above. Mennonites do not seem to have any quote 'imbalance' but seem to lean very heavily in favor of the Palestinians. This is not due to anti-semitism but to our Howard Zinn-like belief in all things controversial and counter-culture. All I mean to imply is that we as contemporary Mennonites need not feel guilty about the sins of A FEW brothers and sisters any more then we feel guilty about Munster. I think that comments insinuating that "german Mennonites fed Jews into the ovens" (as some have felt the need to relay) blurs history and fuels our identity crisis. Youth today need to feel proud about our identity and our adult peers give them a tough time doing so.

  • Posted by cousin at Sunday, August 26, 2007 at 12:34 PM

    "This is not due to anti-semitism but to our Howard Zinn-like belief in all things controversial and counter-culture. All I mean to imply is that we as contemporary Mennonites need not feel guilty about the sins of A FEW brothers and sisters any more then we feel guilty about Munster." To be counter-culture and controlversial concerning Israel and the Palestinians is this more of following fads, a flip-flopping of sorts not based on the Word of God but jumping on a cause bandwagon. Maybe a lack of really understanding the Word leads to flip-flopping. Also, should white people who came to this country less than a 100 years ago be made to feel guilty about slavery using the above thought you spoke?

  • Posted by rosslynn at Tuesday, September 11, 2007 at 01:19 PM

    Thanks John and Tim for the spadework. The new Mennonite World Conference volume on European Mennonite history "Testing Faith and Tradition" also deals with the collusion of Mennonites with Nazism. There's also John D. Thiesen's 1999 Pandora Press book "Mennonite and Nazi? Attitudes Among Mennonite Colonists in Latin America, 1933-1945" also examines this obscene chapter in Mennonite history. Our West Philadelphia Mennonite Fellowship shares worship space with a Reconstructionist synagogue (as well as 3 other Christian congregations.) We have had some dialog with them, particularly because one of our elders is from Jewish background. As John Kampen suggests, there is a lot of ground to cover.

  • Posted by Sierra Spade at Tuesday, September 18, 2007 at 02:03 AM

    There isn't enough range of opinion here yet. Picking up on a couple of Tim's observations about the Epp dissertation, why do we assume that those forebears or relatives who thought that Jews were (disproportionately) the force behind Russian Communism, or a (disproportionately) immoral and corrupting influence in European society, were wrong? Why do we assume that American political leaders from FDR onward were on the right track--just look at the kind of miserable Sicko Wall Street Hollywood manipulated society we have in America today (oh, except I forgot, it's been good for Mennonites, so that's all that counts). This is sheer American Mennonite arrogrance, which pays great lip service to the views of the marginalized but doesn't bother to be informed about the experience of even the Mennonite other or the Mennonite brother, the grandson of the refugee with a German accent who has probably learned to keep his mouth pretty well shut by now under the influence of the IPCTP (International Politically Correct Thought Police). Although they are nearly impossible to find now, there are a few books which could open your eyes on the subject in the J. E. Stauffer presidential library at EMU, for you intrepid EMU students out there. Let's go a step further: why do we assume that these people who go about calling themselves Jews today have any connection whatsoever to God's chosen people? Aren't they the descendants, spiritual and otherwise, of the rabbis who broke the covenant and forfeited the inheritance of the kingship of God because of their own unwillingness to heed Jesus the Christ? Or if you don't like that proposition, maybe some of you would be interested to know that a whole bunch of Khazari people got grafted into Judaism during the past 10 centuries and these Jewish pretenders really have no greater claim to chosen status than -- than you or I do! Ever heard of anyone trying to use religion for their own nefarious purposes? Wake up Mennonites, you've been successfully brainwashed in these U.S. of A. for too many years now, and your tired social ethic has taken us nowhere except to serve the pacification interests of the ruling elites. And finally, Gerhard R, I would love to read anything from Himmler's Pacifists that you could make available, if you tell me how to contact you. I don't care if it is consistent with my thesis or not. Give me some real debate, fine; just don't give me any standard kneejerk philojudaic dogma.

  • Posted by rosslynn at Monday, October 01, 2007 at 12:33 PM

    Arthur Waskow was active in the anti-Vietnam war movement when I was a young man and has more recently been active in the anti-Iraq war movement. The article below from JTA points out some of the implications for Jews who are peace activists of MCC's courting of Ahmadinejad. Meeting for dialog with Islamic religious leaders is one thing, but I think it's ridiculous the way MCC is sucking up to Ahmadinejad. Rabbi stays away from Ahmadinejad meeting Published: 09/30/2007 A rabbi blasted church groups for saying he was pressured into not joining a meeting with Iran's president. "I did not decline out of lack of support from any Jewish organization or from unwillingness to dialogue," Rabbi Arthur Waskow, who heads the Shalom Center in Philadelphia, said in a message to his followers after the Sept. 26 meeting at a U.N. chapel between Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and about 100 North American clerics. A New York Times article quoted organizers as saying that Jews invited to the event "declined because they could not win support from Jewish organizations." The event was organized by an alliance of the "peace churches," the Mennonites and Quakers, although many denominations attended. Waskow said he declined because he had a prior commitment at an anti-Iraq war event in Washington, but also "because the experience of the last year, after all the same concerns were raised by religious leaders to President Ahmedinejad on his last visit to the U.N., suggests to me that he is impervious to dialogue and merely wants to use these meetings to bolster his own weak political position in Iran." Waskow noted that he had declined to attend a similar encounter in September 2006, when Ahmadinejad attended the General Assembly opening, because event organizers asked him at the last minute not to raise the Iranian president's Holocaust denial and his attacks on Israel's existence. http://www.jta.org/cgi-bin/iowa/breaking/104417.html

  • Posted by Gerhard R at Saturday, October 13, 2007 at 12:47 PM

    Here is someting for us to think about. It is particularly pointed at Victor 1 and Sierra Spade. "The Fate of the Jews" "Shortly before Christmas 1941 four men of the field constabulary were quartered in our home. They took over Liese’s room. We had gotten used to such shrinkage of our living space and took it quietly in stride in exchange for liberation from fear of the GPU. It happened on occasion that all of us slept on straw in the kitchen, while all our rooms were taken over by the military, if only for a night. The gendarmes were not particularly intelligent men and a couple of them were not sympathetic. In the extraordinary situation at the time, we were unsure in our judgment of Germans, since our basic attitude towards everything and everyone that came from Germany was openly receptive. The earlier norms of social behavior among intelligent people did not apply. There was great diversity in the origin and education of men who frequented our home at that time. It was wartime and this fact determined our entire life, thought and behavior. As 'guardians' of order the men of the constabulary often visited the neighboring villages. Since the Ukrainians were at first friendly towards the Germans, they collected eggs and chickens and asked Liese to prepare meals for them. Their appetite was enormous. There usually was little left for us at the end of their meals. But the Wehrmacht always provided bread for us. This was very important, since the civilian population received in those weeks and months a mere 300-gram portion of bread per person and nothing else. It did not take long for the Jewish problem “to be solved.” Today, the more I think about those times, the more a feeling of guilt overcomes me. How disturbing my judgment was at that time, with regard to the treatment of Jews by the National Socialists! We sensed a great uneasiness in reference to Jews since the very first day of the occupation. On the second day we discovered that the pharmacist Vogel and his wife had poisoned themselves before the occupation of Chortitza. He died but his wife survived. Many Jews had fled, but the pharmacy couple had apparently missed an opportunity to flee. Many Jewish longtime residents, who had always lived among Mennonites, who were never unfriendly toward us during Soviet times or revealed any discriminatory behavior, remained in their Chortitza homes, as did the old shoemaker Aron with his wife, hoping that nothing would happen to them. But all Jews lived in great fear and withdrew from public view, quietly awaiting events. I remember exactly how I felt when I met once the wife of the pharmacist, my co-worker in the hospital, where she worked as a laboratory technician. She was always correct in her behavior toward me, not a matter of course since my class origin and politically tainted reputation made such things unnatural. She helped me find another job when I had to resign my position at the hospital. The nurses at the hospital had taken her in and helped her to avoid all but absolutely necessary and dangerous appearances in the street. I met her once in passing behind our garden. Our eyes met silently as we moved on. A creeping sense of guilt invaded my feelings. I should have talked to her. One day we saw how Jews, about 50 men, women and children, were marched down the street. They were all shot outside the village, including half-Jews. A Russian mother with her half-Jewish child is supposed to have gone along with the child to her death. The rural constabulary was ordered to carry out these actions. With horror I write these lines today. This event was a heavy burden for all of us to bear. Inconceivable it is today and will never be understood by people who did not experience these times with us how we could accept these inhuman deeds without open protest. I would like to mention the following facts, not to make excuses, but only to make understanding of our behavior possible: Under the Soviet regime we lived through a great deal of inhumanity, and also were aware of the prominence of Jews in the economic and political life of the country. At the top of the GPU we noticed many Jews and the interrogating judges were also Jews. Millions of people disappeared and died in the “silent camps.” We knew what life was like in a totalitarian state. Our concepts of law and justice had been confused. In Germany we saw the opposite of Soviet Russia, that is to say something better. At that time we still revered Hitler. If he had decided upon such a solution of the Jewish question, than the Jews apparently were endangering the political security of Germany. In this manner I tried to justify the inhuman treatment of Jews. In this lies my great guilt, which cannot be expiated by any means. I can only hope for forgiving mercy. It is not particularly easy to confess this guilt. I see this admission in my memoir as a kind of public confessional, at least on paper."

  • Posted by Gerhard R at Saturday, October 13, 2007 at 12:53 PM

    Unfortunately, my previous post did not include the footnotes. The piece is from Anna Sudermann's memoir available at the Mennonite Heritage Center in Winnipeg. Here are the footnotes: 1 Sudermann uses the terms Feldgendarmerie and simply Gendarmerie interchangeably in this short passage alone, whereas they could have been quite distinct auxiliary police units, some German in origin and others mainly native Ukrainian personnel. While she shrewdly grasped their primary function, Martin Dean has now delineated the extraordinary complexity of these units in Collaboration in the Holocaust, 63. Cf. Toews, Trek to Freedom, 19-20. Toews reports personal observation of atrocities committed against Jews. “In southern Ukraine the remaining Jews were also ‘liquidated’ by the summer of 1942. In Kamenka, Cherkassy district, the local police participated in the shooting of more than one hundred Jews in March. On 29 May 1942 in Stalindorf, Kherson district, the remaining elderly Jews and Jewesses were rounded up and shot, after their men folk had been sent to work on the Dnepropetrovsk-Zaporozhye highway in April. In the rayon town of Ustinovka the Gebietskommissar issued orders in June 1942 for about 30 Jews from the surrounding villages to be arrested and brought in to the local police station by the Gendarmerie and local Schutzmannschaft. Another 30 or so Jews were brought in from the nearby town of Bobrinets….” Dean, Collaboration in the Holocaust, 83. That at least was Anna Sudermann’s own experience. See her detailed and insightful description and analysis of her own arrest and interrogations on pages 296-312 of her memoir. This passage rivals anything I have seen on interrogation methods utilized by the Soviet secret police, or the Gestapo for that matter. One wonders who learned from whom when it came to inhuman and terrorist techniques. Anna Sudermann, Lebenserinnerugen, 349-352. Her memoir is available at the Mennonite Heritage Center in Winnipeg.

  • Posted by horsepistol at Monday, September 14, 2009 at 09:25 AM

    Tim , It is unfortunate this thread has ended in 2007. However as the world moves forward in history one may see how a Jewish take over of US government is coming into it's own. Historically as a Jew, if you can influence the minds of other's does that make them a Jew? Well it seems to work in regards to mentality and activism, however as a non-Jew you are expendable ( as in the case of Peter Sinner). Even though I am not sure of all my past Russian German ancestor's I have only recently realized the terror and extermination by Bolshevism upon our group as a whole. When you ask whether we owe the Jewish community an apology I would take a look in the Mirror and ask your self that question because as I have now learned with conclusion, it is they who in-fact owe us an apology for destroying a Christian Nation from whence we originated as a whole and the massive millions lost to their imposed artificial famines and late night raids of the NKVD, on the population to inflict the fear of death upon their survival. Who owes who an apology? Would I accept one? No and I would recommend to all the same rejection. Zionism is not fiction...They do wish to dominate the world and it is clearly coming to past. Humanity is buying into the sensitization of the Holocaust and have burdened each other for these losses. Most Jews who lost their lives during WWII are contributed to the Russian losses. This is a clear signal to where the masses had collected. It is also clear that what our ancestor's tried to express was at the expense of rivers of blood. What about those who were forcefully repatriated. Most died. The fact is over 20 million Russians died in the War, who were the other 15.5 million! I recently read a dissertation by Samuel Sinner and Eric Schmaltz who exposed to me the actions of Karl Stumpp and George Leibbrandt and I was angered to discover their one sided accusation on those who are no longer here to defend themselves. These men are traitors and I will also inform you that Sinners Grandfather befriended revolutionaries in the University. His mind was of a Jew but his ancestry claims he is a Russian German. I would say he is probably a cryptic Jew and move forward. Peter Sinner had been embraced by the community here in the US just as Samuel has been so embraced but when I learned Peter Sinner embraced Maxim Gorky a known revolutionary and close friend of Lenin then my heart sank realizing they have once again duped us. My guess of the Ukrainian Community of Chicago is a growing population of Jews coming out of the closet feeling comfortable in how they are cluttering the minds of the younger generations. They were driven out of Ukraine for there connections to past NKVD actions that left 100's of thousands dead before Germany occupied Ukraine. If you want fact go to Ukraine , however the Jewish agenda is directed at brainwashing the population once again and trying to lay all responsibility on the German peoples. Look enough is enough. The younger generation has no wisdom only propaganda under their belt. Wisdom comes through experience. This wound will never heal because the Jewish agenda seems to want to irritate it and you are one of those individuals who is resembling Sinner. Take a good look at yourself before you start looking at the community who was the foregoing recipient of Jewish terror!

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